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Two Suns in The Sky: Stellar Multiplicity in Exoplanet Systems
We present results of a reconnaissance for stellar companions to all 131radial velocity-detected candidate extrasolar planetary systems known asof 2005 July 1. Common proper-motion companions were investigated usingthe multiepoch STScI Digitized Sky Surveys and confirmed by matching thetrigonometric parallax distances of the primaries to companion distancesestimated photometrically. We also attempt to confirm or refutecompanions listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog, in the Catalogsof Nearby Stars Series by Gliese and Jahreiß, in Hipparcosresults, and in Duquennoy & Mayor's radial velocity survey. Ourfindings indicate that a lower limit of 30 (23%) of the 131 exoplanetsystems have stellar companions. We report new stellar companions to HD38529 and HD 188015 and a new candidate companion to HD 169830. Weconfirm many previously reported stellar companions, including six starsin five systems, that are recognized for the first time as companions toexoplanet hosts. We have found evidence that 20 entries in theWashington Double Star Catalog are not gravitationally bound companions.At least three (HD 178911, 16 Cyg B, and HD 219449), and possibly five(including HD 41004 and HD 38529), of the exoplanet systems reside intriple-star systems. Three exoplanet systems (GJ 86, HD 41004, andγ Cep) have potentially close-in stellar companions, with planetsat roughly Mercury-Mars distances from the host star and stellarcompanions at projected separations of ~20 AU, similar to the Sun-Uranusdistance. Finally, two of the exoplanet systems contain white dwarfcompanions. This comprehensive assessment of exoplanet systems indicatesthat solar systems are found in a variety of stellar multiplicityenvironments-singles, binaries, and triples-and that planets survive thepost-main-sequence evolution of companion stars.

Galactic model parameters for field giants separated from field dwarfs by their 2MASS and V apparent magnitudes
We present a method which separates field dwarfs and field giants bytheir 2MASS and V apparent magnitudes. This method is based onspectroscopically selected standards and is hence reliable. We appliedit to stars in two fields, SA 54 and SA 82, and we estimated a full setof Galactic model parameters for giants including their total localspace density. Our results are in agreement with the ones given in therecent literature.

Dwarfs in the Local Region
We present lithium, carbon, and oxygen abundance data for a sample ofnearby dwarfs-a total of 216 stars-including samples within 15 pc of theSun, as well as a sample of local close giant planet (CGP) hosts (55stars) and comparison stars. The spectroscopic data for this work have aresolution of R~60,000, a signal-to-noise ratio >150, and spectralcoverage from 475 to 685 nm. We have redetermined parameters and derivedadditional abundances (Z>10) for the CGP host and comparison samples.From our abundances for elements with Z>6 we determine the meanabundance of all elements in the CGP hosts to range from 0.1 to 0.2 dexhigher than nonhosts. However, when relative abundances ([x/Fe]) areconsidered we detect no differences in the samples. We find nodifference in the lithium contents of the hosts versus the nonhosts. Theplanet hosts appear to be the metal-rich extension of local regionabundances, and overall trends in the abundances are dominated byGalactic chemical evolution. A consideration of the kinematics of thesample shows that the planet hosts are spread through velocity space;they are not exclusively stars of the thin disk.

The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of ˜14 000 F and G dwarfs
We present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our˜63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the ``G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989

Tidal Circularization and Kozai Migration
Extrasolar planets that lie close to their parent stars appear to havebeen tidally circularized. We quantify the circularization process usinga quality factor Q which measures the inefficiency of tidal dissipationinside these planets. Observed data show Q ˜ 3 ×105, closely resembling that of Jupiter. We discuss thephysical significance of this result.One of the planets (HD80606b) has a highly eccentric (e = 0.93) andtight (a = 0.46 AU) orbit. We study how it might have arrived at such anorbit and how it could have avoided tidal circularization. The presenceof a stellar companion to the host star can cause Kozai oscillations inthe planet's eccentricity. Combined with tidal dissipation, this canmigrate the planet inward well after it has formed. Such a migrationmechanism can account for the orbit of HD80606b, but only if the initialplanet orbit was highly inclined relative to the binary orbit. We callthis migration scenario "Kozai migration" and briefly discuss itsrelevance to other planetary systems.

Planet Migration and Binary Companions: The Case of HD 80606b
The exosolar planet HD 80606b has a highly eccentric (e=0.93) and tight(a=0.47 AU) orbit. We study how it might arrive at such an orbit and howit has avoided being tidally circularized until now. The presence of astellar companion to the host star suggests the possibility that theKozai mechanism and tidal dissipation combined to draw the planet inwardwell after it formed: Kozai oscillations produce periods of extremeeccentricity in the planet orbit, and the tidal dissipation that occursduring these periods of small pericenter distances leads to gradualorbital decay. We call this migration mechanism the ``Kozai migration.''It requires that the initial planet orbit be highly inclined relative tothe binary orbit. For a companion at 1000 AU and an initial planet orbitat 5 AU, the minimum relative inclination required is ~85°. Wediscuss the efficiency of tidal dissipation inferred from theobservations of exoplanets. Moreover, we investigate possibleexplanations for the velocity residual (after the motion induced by theplanet is removed) observed on the host star: a second planet in thesystem is excluded over a large extent of semimajor axis space if Kozaimigration is to work, and the tide raised on the star by HD 80606b islikely too small in amplitude. Last, we discuss the relevance of Kozaimigration for other planetary systems.

Abundance Analysis of Planetary Host Stars. I. Differential Iron Abundances
We present atmospheric parameters and iron abundances derived fromhigh-resolution spectra for three samples of dwarf stars: stars that areknown to host close-in giant planets (CGP), stars for which radialvelocity data exclude the presence of a close-in giant planetarycompanion (no-CGP), as well as a random sample of dwarfs with a spectraltype and magnitude distribution similar to that of the planetary hoststars (control). All stars have been observed with the same instrumentand have been analyzed using the same model atmospheres, atomic data,and equivalent width modeling program. Abundances have been deriveddifferentially to the Sun, using a solar spectrum obtained with Callistoas the reflector with the same instrumentation. We find that the ironabundances of CGP dwarfs are on average 0.22 dex greater than that ofno-CGP dwarfs. The iron abundance distributions of both the CGP andno-CGP dwarfs are different than that of the control dwarfs, while thecombined iron abundances have a distribution that is very similar tothat of the control dwarfs. All four samples (CGP, no-CGP, combined, andcontrol) have different effective temperature distributions. We showthat metal enrichment occurs only for CGP dwarfs with temperatures justbelow solar and ~300 K higher than solar, whereas the abundancedifference is insignificant at Teff around 6000 K.

Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. II. The epoch 2001 [Fe/H] catalog
This paper describes the derivation of an updated statistical catalog ofmetallicities. The stars for which those metallicities apply are ofspectral types F, G, and K, and are on or near the main sequence. Theinput data for the catalog are values of [Fe/H] published before 2002February and derived from lines of weak and moderate strength. Theanalyses used to derive the data have been based on one-dimensional LTEmodel atmospheres. Initial adjustments which are applied to the datainclude corrections to a uniform temperature scale which is given in acompanion paper (see Taylor \cite{t02}). After correction, the data aresubjected to a statistical analysis. For each of 941 stars considered,the results of that analysis include a mean value of [Fe/H], an rmserror, an associated number of degrees of freedom, and one or moreidentification numbers for source papers. The catalog of these resultssupersedes an earlier version given by Taylor (\cite{t94b}).Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/731

Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. I. The epoch 2001 temperature catalog
This paper is one of a pair in which temperatures and metallicitycatalogs for class IV-V stars are considered. The temperature catalogdescribed here is derived from a calibration based on stellar angulardiameters. If published calibrations of this kind are compared by usingcolor-index transformations, temperature-dependent differences among thecalibrations are commonly found. However, such differences are minimizedif attention is restricted to calibrations based on Johnson V-K. Acalibration of this sort from Di Benedetto (\cite{dib98}) is thereforetested and adopted. That calibration is then applied to spectroscopicand photometric data, with the latter predominating. Cousins R-Iphotometry receives special attention because of its high precision andlow metallicity sensitivity. Testing of temperatures derived from thecalibration suggests that their accuracy and precision are satisfactory,though further testing will be warranted as new results appear. Thesetemperatures appear in the catalog as values of theta equiv5040/T(effective). Most of these entries are accompanied by measured orderived values of Cousins R-I. Entries are given for 951 stars.Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/721

HD 80606 b, a planet on an extremely elongated orbit
We report the detection of a planetary companion orbiting the solar-typestar HD 80606, the brighter component of a wide binary with a projectedseparation of about 2000 AU. Using high-signal spectroscopicobservations of the two components of the visual binary, we show thatthey are nearly identical. The planet has an orbital period of 111.8days and a minimum mass of 3.9 {M_Jup}. With e = 0.927, this planet hasthe highest orbital eccentricity among the extrasolar planets detectedso far. We finally list several processes this extreme eccentricitycould result from. Based on observations made at the Observatoire deHaute-Provence (French CNRS) and at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated as a scientific partnership among the Californian Institute ofTechnology, the University of California and the National Aeronauticsand Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by thegenerous financial support from the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Abundances in metal-rich stars. Detailed abundance analysis of 47 G and K dwarf stars with [Me/H] > 0.10 dex
We have derived elemental abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr,Mn, Fe, Co, Ni as well as for a number of s-elements for 47 G and Kdwarf, with [Me/H]>0.1 dex. The selection of stars was based on theirkinematics as well as on their uvby-beta photometry. One sample of starson rather eccentric orbits traces the chemical evolution interior to thesolar orbit and another, on circular orbits, the evolution around thesolar orbit. A few Extreme Population I stars were included in thelatter sample. The stars have -0.1 dex < [Fe/H] < 0.42 dex. Thespectroscopic [Fe/H] correlate well with the [Me/H] derived fromuvby-beta photometry. We find that the elemental abundances of Mg, Al,Si, Ca, Ti, Cr and Ni all follow [Fe/H]. Our data put furtherconstraints on models of galactic chemical evolution, in particular ofCr, Mn and Co which have not previously been studied for dwarf starswith [Me/H] >0.1 dex. The increase in [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] as afunction of [Fe/H] found previously by \cite[Edvardsson et al.(1993a)]{Edv93} has been confirmed for [Na/Fe]. This upturning relation,and the scatter around it, are shown not to be due to a mixture ofpopulations with different mean distances to the galactic centre. We donot confirm the same trend for aluminium, which is somewhat surprisingsince both these elements are thought to be produced in the sameenvironments in the pre-supernova stars. Nor have we been able to traceany tendency for relative abundances of O, Si, and Ti relative to Fe tovary with the stellar velocities, i.e. the stars present mean distanceto the galactic centre. These results imply that there is no significantdifference in the chemical evolution of the different stellarpopulations for stars with [Me/H]>0.1 dex. We find that [O/Fe]continue to decline with increasing [Fe/H] and that oxygen and europiumcorrelate well. However [Si/Fe] and [Ca/Fe] seem to stay constant. Areal (``cosmic'') scatter in [Ti/Fe] at given [Fe/H] is suggested aswell as a decreasing abundance of the s-elements relative to iron forthe most metal-rich dwarf stars. We discuss our results in the contextof recent models of galactic chemical evolution. In our sample we haveincluded a few very metal rich stars, sometimes called SMR (super metalrich) stars. We find these stars to be among the most iron-rich in oursample but far from as metal-rich as indicated by their photometricmetallicities. SMR stars on highly eccentric orbits, alleged to tracethe evolution of the chemical evolution in the galactic Bulge, havepreviously been found overabundant in O, Mg and Si. We have includedthree such stars from the study by \cite[Barbuy & Grenon(1990)]{Bar90}. We find them to be less metal rich and the otherelemental abundances remain puzzling. Detailed spectroscopic abundanceanalyses of K dwarf stars are rare. Our study includes 5 K dwarf starsand has revealed what appears to be a striking example ofoverionization. The overionization is especially prominent for Ca, Crand Fe. The origin of this apparent overionization is not clear and wediscuss different explanations in some detail. Based on observations atthe McDonald Observatory.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:09h22m39.74s
Apparent magnitude:9.078
Proper motion RA:53.6
Proper motion Dec:13.4
B-T magnitude:10.153
V-T magnitude:9.167

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 80607
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 3431-1050-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1350-07581903
HIPHIP 45983

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